In many ecosystems, the bottom of the food chain consists of photosynthetic organisms (plants and/or phytoplankton), which are called primary producers. The organisms that consume the primary producers are herbivores: the primary consumers. Secondary consumers are usually carnivores that eat the primary consumers.
What is the base of an ecosystem?
The base of the pyramid is composed of species called autotrophs, the primary producers of the ecosystem. All other organisms in the ecosystem are consumers called heterotrophs, which either directly or indirectly depend on the primary producers for food energy.
What are the 5 levels of an ecosystem?
Within the discipline of ecology, researchers work at five broad levels, sometimes discretely and sometimes with overlap: organism, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere.
Competitive interactions among stimuli can be influenced or biased by bottom-up processes that are based on stimulus-driven properties and top-down processes that are determined by the individual’s goals (Desimone and Duncan, 1995; Beck and Kastner, 2009).
The bottom-up effect means that a lower trophic level in the biological network affects the community structure of higher trophic levels by means of resource restriction . The top-down effect refers to a higher trophic level influences the community structure of a lower trophic level through predation .
What’s a synonym for ecosystem?
- ecological community.
What are the levels of ecosystem?
Levels of ecological organization from smallest to largest: individual, population, species, community, ecosystem, biosphere.
What are the levels of ecology?
These levels are organism, population, community, and ecosystem. In ecology, ecosystems are composed of dynamically-interacting parts, which include organisms, the communities they comprise, and the non-living (abiotic) components of their environment.
What are 4 levels of organization?
An organism is made up of four levels of organization: cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.